Рефераты по иностранным языкам

"If" and "when" conditional clauses

29 Октября 2010, Не определен

Условные предложения с "если" и "когда" в английском языке.

"Норма перевода" Г. Тури, вероятностно-прогностическая модель синхронного перевода Г.В.Чернова

18 Марта 2011, реферат

Экстремальные условия речемыслительной деятельности в процессе синхронного перевода и реальное существование синхронного перевода (восприятие и понимание сообщения на иностранном языке (ИЯ) с одновременным порождением на языке перевода (ПЯ) сообщения того же семантико-смыслового содержания) вынуждают постулировать некоторые речемыслительные механизмы, которые способны обеспечить
деятельность синхронного перевода. В качестве такого механизма, как было показано в работах Г.В. Чернова, выступает механизм вероятностного прогнозирования вербального и смыслового развития развивающегося во времени сообщения на ИЯ и упреждающего синтеза порождаемого сообщения на ПЯ.

"Русская грамматика "Ломоносова

07 Сентября 2016, реферат

«Российская грамматика» - одно из главных филологических сочинений М. В. Ломоносова и одно из важнейших по значимости в истории русской филологии. Первая печатная русская научная грамматика на родном языке. Ломоносов начал работать над «Российской грамматикой» в 1749 г. 20 сентября (по ст. стилю) 1755 г. Ломоносов преподнёс перебеленную рукопись РГ великому князю Павлу Петровичу. Из печати книга (тираж - 1200 экз.) вышла в январе 1757 г. На титульном листе 1-го изд. указан не год выхода «Российской грамматики» в свет, а 1755 г. Аналогично - 1755 годом - помечены и все последующие издания «Российской грамматики» XVIII в.: 2-е изд.(1765), 3-е (1771), 4-е (1777), 5-е (1784). В 1764 г. в Петербурге «Российская грамматика» вышла в переводе на немецкий язык.

A History of the English Language

31 Марта 2013, лекция

Baugh and Cable’s A History of the English Language has long been considered the
standard work in the field.
A History of the English Language is a comprehensive exploration of the linguistic
and cultural development of English, from the Middle Ages to the present day. The book
provides students with a balanced and up-to-date overview of the history of the language.
The fifth edition has been revised and updated to keep students up to date with recent
developments in the field. Revisions include:
• a revised first chapter, ‘English present and future’
• a new section on gender issues and linguistic change
• updated material on African-American Vernacular English

A new neighbor

15 Ноября 2010, Не определен

Chapter 1

Adam Smith

12 Сентября 2010, Не определен


Adventure of Volume of Sawyer

14 Декабря 2010, доклад

he book "Adventure of Volume of Sawyer", is written in 1876 American writer Mark Twain. In the book told about adventures of the boy which lives in the small town St.-Petersburg. The book has twenty chapters. I will tell about five of them.

Agent-based Computational Economics: Exploring the Evolution of Trade Networks

15 Марта 2013, научная работа

As the field of economics seeks to further its understanding of the links between
the micro and macro sides of the area, economists are becoming increasingly
appreciative of agent-based models. Cross-silos approaches to problems are pro-
viding for a new way of thinking about how to explain complex phenomenon in
science. Agent-based modelling provides a novel and effective way of explaining
how such complex systems arrive at macro phenomenon through attempting to
grow said societies. The project that I am undertaking is an extension of the
work completed by Allen Wilhite which is documented in his paper “Bilateral
Trade and Small-world Networks.”

Aggressive moves counter SRB in flooded subsea pipeline

25 Марта 2011, реферат

Aggressive applications of biocide, use of hydrogen sulfide scavengers, and multiple pig runs can quickly eradicate even major infestations of sulfate- reducing bacteria in a repaired subsea natural gas pipeline following seawater incursion.

Air pollution

11 Января 2011, реферат

Air pollution... This problem is very important. In spite of it’s importance, there’s really a few people who is worried about it.But it’s not right ! Such problems as this one needs more attention. Of course it’s clear, that human gives the beginning of this issue. But if the human gives the beginning of this issue, wouldn’t it be right that the human has to stop it ???

Alamannen Stammes Gewerkschaften

07 Сентября 2011, статья

Land in Mitteleuropa, die bereits vor dem Ende des Zweiten Weltkrieges (1939-1945). Capital - Berlin. In alten Zeiten lebte in Deutschland für die Deutschen. Alamannen Stammes Gewerkschaften, Bayern, Thüringen, Sachsen und andere wurden in die 6-8 Jahrhunderte enthalten. in der fränkischen Staates. Als Ergebnis seiner Abschnitt (843) wurde von der Ost-fränkischen Reiches geschaffen, aus denen heraus in den 10. frühfeudalen Reich Deutschland. In 962, mit der Eroberung des deutschen Königs Otto I. von Nord-und Mittelitalien, bildete das Heilige Römische Reich (bis 1806).

Alessandro Volta

23 Марта 2011, реферат

Schlieβt man eine Glűhlampe oder ein Gerat an ein elektrisches Netz, so muss man genau Wissen, ob dieses Gerät fűr die Spannung von 127 oder 220 Volt gebaut ist. Taglich gebraucht man das Wort “Volt”, welches von dem Names des groβen italienischen Wissenschaftles Alessandro Volta stammt.


21 Февраля 2013, доклад

Almaty (Kazakh: Алматы / Almatı, i.e. "city of apples" or "city of apple trees") is the former capital of Kazakhstan and the nation's largest city, with a population of 1,472,866 (at 1 December 2012).This represents approximately 9% of the country's population. Almaty was the capital of the Kazakh SSR from 1929 to 1991 and of independent Kazakhstan from 1991 to 1997. Despite losing its status as the capital to Astana in 1997, Almaty remains the major commercial and cultural centre of Kazakhstan. The city is located in the mountainous area of southern Kazakhstan, near the border with Kyrgyzstan. There are a lot of beautiful places in Almaty.

Almaty city

04 Марта 2013, реферат

Almaty (Russian spelling Alma-Ata), formerly (1855-1921) Verny, the ex-capital of Kazakhstan, is situated in the southeastern part of Kazakhstan (Almaty oblast) at the foot of Zailiski Ala-Tau mountain system at an elevation of 2,300-3,000 feet (700-900 m). Almaatinka rivers emerge into the plain.

America and England

07 Августа 2011, реферат

In America and England each bride watches, that in day of wedding there was something new, something old, something borrowed and something of blue color on her
In Germany in day of wedding grooms put to themselves in pockets of a few grain which on them belief will bring riches and success. Children should run about beds of a newly-married couple in Greece in the beginning to provide to a young couple healthy posterity. Also in Greece on clothes of friends and girl-friends young

An English Speaking city - Chicago

27 Марта 2011, реферат

Chicago is the largest city in the state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous city in the USA, after New York City and Los Angeles. Its metropolitan area, commonly named "Chicagoland," is the 27th most populous metropolitan area in the world home to an estimated 9.7 million people spread across the U.S. states of Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin.

An essay on the topic: "What is welfare economics and why it is important?"

04 Декабря 2011, доклад

Welfare economics, it's the economy that shows how economic policies affect society, families and individuals. Welfare economics says that, besides numbers, graphs and formulas exist and people. Welfare economics shows how income and wealth are distributed among the population, as well as how public policies affect the capital.

Analysis of the novel “To Kill a Mockingbird”

26 Декабря 2014, контрольная работа

“To Kill a Mockingbird” is Harper Lee`s well-known novel, a controversial novel about race relations in America (although the book covers much more territory than just that).
Harper Lee is one of the most famous writers of her time. Lee received the Pulitzer Prize for the novel, but she has not published another book since.

Anatole France

17 Декабря 2010, контрольная работа

Жизнь Анатолья Франса
Боги Жаждут

Appraising the European Central Bank

25 Сентября 2011, реферат

THE global economy has stopped sinking and central bankers are pausing for breath. As The Economist went to press on July 2nd, the European Central Bank (ECB) was expected to keep its main “refi” interest rate unchanged, at 1%. The ECB’s rate-setting council has been chary of cutting rates closer to zero as policymakers elsewhere have done. Its reluctance to do more has attracted criticism, only some of it fair.

Arbeit als Überleben in Odin den’ Ivana Denisoviča

24 Марта 2011, курсовая работа

Im Rahmen meiner Bakkalaureatsarbeit möchte ich mich mit dem Erstlingswerk Aleksandr Solženicyns Odin den’ Ivana Denisoviča beschäftigen.

Arbitrage Pricing Theory

06 Ноября 2017, реферат

In this report, we discover APT as a model used to provide pricing strategy for stocks in the best possible way by taking into consideration multiple risks that are associated along with the stocks. From the research carried out, it has been found out that there are several macroeconomic and financial factors that influence stock returns. They are: global, political, cyclical, systemic, synergistic and industry factors, and also the investment characteristics of the issuer's position in the region. However, some of these variables can affect the stock return more than others.

Argumentation of expediency of JV creation with foreign partner

11 Марта 2012, курсовая работа

Enterprise has 20th year experience of work on the Ukrainian market and has significant industrial capacity, qualified human resources. “Ukrpapir” has a possibility to pay in statutory fund of future JV 50 thnd € in a current year.
During last year’s economic activity of the enterprise characterized by the following problems:
1) Reduction of the volumes of selling of the office paper and cardboard tare products.
2) Equipment of the enterprise request modernization.
3) Development of the new types of products don’t introduce in manufacturing under the conditions of investment resources absent.

Aroma printing

11 Мая 2010, Не определен

People see and hear the dozens of different information every day by radio, television and published information. 98 per cent of this information is not perceived. In this situation the advertisement should have effect on different client’s organs of senses, such as osmetic, visual and tactile senses. Advertisement can use some secrets of printing. Aroma printing is the printing with application of aromatic inks and lacquers.

Articulatory peculiarities of vowels in the English and Ukrainian languages

24 Ноября 2011, реферат

1.Articulatory peculiarities of vowels in the English and Ukrainian languages
1.1 Articulation peculiarities of English language vowels. Their positional changes and reduction.
1.2. Articulatory peculiarities of vowels in the Ukrainian languages

Ausgliederung der Wortarten

27 Февраля 2011, реферат

Die Wörter einer Sprache stehen nicht einzeln, sondern lassen sich zu bestimmten Gruppen zusammenfassen. Dabei ist nicht der konkrete semantische Inhalt eines Wortes entscheiden, sondern dessen abstrakte grammatische Bedeutung. Solche Wortgruppen nennt man Wortarten. Eine Wortart fasst Wörter zusammen, die durch bestimmte gemeinsame Merkmale gekennzeichnet sind. Diese Merkmale sind: 1) die gemeinsame grammatische Bedeutung; 2) die gleichen grammatischen Kategorien; 3) die gleichen syntaktischen Funktionen; 4) die Art der Wortbildung.


11 Сентября 2016, реферат

Australia – the state occupying the whole continent on the area. It is the country, the sixth in size, in the world (about 8 million sq.km) – it is located in Oceania, between Quiet and Indian oceans. Australia is in three climatic zones. In the winter here very small amount of rainfall drops out. Landscape of Australia almost flat. Here almost completely there is no mountain district. The most part of this continent is occupied by the desert. For this reason Australia is called the white continent.

Barclays checks out by Oleg Nikishenkov

15 Марта 2011, статья

British banking giant Barclays is quitting the Russian retail scene, citing various local problems. Barclays is following in the footsteps of Spain’s Santander, Belgian KBC Group and Swedish Swedbank, which have also recently announced they plan to exit the Russian retail sector.

Baron Haussmann - (1809-1891)

23 Марта 2011, доклад

Georges-Eugène Haussmann est né à Paris en 1809.
Sous-préfet de Nérac de 1832 à 1840.
L'arrondissement lui doit beaucoup et notamment:


05 Апреля 2010, Не определен

Baroque in European culture takes period in extension with one and a half century. Human of baroque period is not image of God, a criterion or standard of beauty as it was in Renaissance, but first of all a being capable to feel and suffer, possessing infinite imagination.
Artistic style of baroque, which came for replacement of Renaissance in the second half of 16 century, was extraordinary showed in musical art. For baroque is characteristic to internal, spiritual life of human, and music was able to reflect this part of period. Moreover, musicians of this period tried to show internal emotional experiences of human. And it became not enough to consider relation of all mankind with God. And it’s much more interesting relations with him of individual person and his feelings in this or that occasion.